Cancer Diagnostics


What is Cancer Diagnostics ?

There is no single test that can accurately diagnose cancer. The complete evaluation of a patient usually requires a thorough history and physical examination along with diagnostic testing. Many tests are needed to determine whether a person has cancer, or if another condition (such as an infection) is mimicking the symptoms of cancer.

Effective diagnostic testing is used to confirm or eliminate the presence of disease, monitor the disease process, and to plan for and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. In some cases, it is necessary to repeat testing when a persons condition has changed, if a sample collected was not of good quality, or an abnormal test result needs to be confirmed.

Diagnostic procedures for cancer may include imaging, laboratory tests (including tests for tumor markers), tumor biopsy, endoscopic examination, surgery, or genetic testing.


Solutions For Cancer Diagnostics

To identify cancer at its earliest and more treatable stage, different types of cancer diagnostic tests are used to:

  • Screen an asymptomatic population for the early detection of cancer
  • Screen at-risk individuals
  • Diagnose a primary cancer and identify the cancer subtype
  • Predict prognosis and direct treatment
  • Monitor treatment efficacy and disease progression or recurrence
  • Earlier detection and treatment subsequently decreases cancer mortality.


Diagnostic Tests ?

There is a wide array of methods to diagnose cancer. As researchers learn more about the mechanisms of cancer, new diagnostic tools are constantly being developed and existing methods refined. If your primary care physician suspects cancer, he or she may order some tests to confirm the diagnosis. These tests can either be conducted by your physician or by oncologists at cancer centers

No matter who makes the diagnosis, a second opinion by a cancer expert is strongly recommended. Some types of cancer, particularly lymphomas, can be hard to classify, even for an expert. Accurate identification of cancer allows oncologists to choose the most effective treatment. The most common diagnostic methods include:


PET-CT :

Positron emission tomography, also called PET imaging or a PET scan, is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. A PET-CT scan combines a CT scan and a PET scan into one scan to give more detailed information about your cancer.....

CT Scan :

Computerized tomography (CT scan) also called CT combines a series of X-ray views taken from many different angles and computer processing to create cross-sectional images of the bones and soft tissues inside your body...

Bone Scan :

A bone scan is a test that can find damage to the bones, find cancer that has spread to the bones, and watch problems such as infection and trauma to the bones. A bone scan can often find a problem days to months earlier than a regular X-ray test...

Blood Tests for Cancers:

A blood test is when a sample of blood is taken for testing in a laboratory. Blood tests have a wide range of uses and are one of the most common types of medical test....

PAP Smear :

The Pap smear is a screening test for cervical cancer. Cells scraped from the opening of the cervix are examined under a microscope. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina...

Mammography :

Mammography is a screening tool that uses X-rays to create images of the breast. These images, called mammograms (MAM-o-grams), are used to find early signs of breast cancer such as a dense mass or clusters of calcium ...

BONE SCAN FAQ

Bone Scan :

A bone scan is a test that can find damage to the bones, find cancer that has spread to the bones, and watch problems such as infection and trauma to the bones. A bone scan can often find a problem days to months earlier than a regular X-ray test.

During a bone scan, a radioactive substance called a tracer is injected into a vein in your arm. The tracer travels through your bloodstream and into your bones. Then a special camera takes pictures of the tracer in your bones.

Areas that absorb little or no amount of tracer appear as dark or "cold" spots. This could show a lack of blood supply to the bone or certain types of cancer.

Areas of fast bone growth or repair absorb more tracer and show up as bright or "hot" spots in the pictures. Hot spots may point to problems such as arthritis, a tumor, a fracture, or an infection.


What is it ?

A bone scan is used to detect the presence of bone disease, for example, tumors, fractures, infection, arthritis, etc.

Blood circulates through every organ of the body, removing oxygen and nutrients to the organs and transporting waste products away from the organs. When a disease is present, there is usually a change in the blood supply and function of the affected organ. For example, if you break a bone, the body will increase the bony metabolic activity and the blood supply to help heal the break. A bone scan is useful in detecting areas of unusual bone growth or destruction.


What will Happen During the Test ?

Prior to the test, you will be asked questions regarding your medical history. Please answer the questions to the best of your knowledge. If you have any questions about the test, ask the technologist. He or she can explain the entire procedure before it begins.

The Technetium-99m MDP radioisotope will be injected into a vein in your arm and is carried by the blood to your bones. You will be asked to drink extra fluids from the time of the injection and void frequently to help clear the radioisotope from your blood by the kidneys.

Once medicine is injected then patient need to wait for at least 3 hours. You will have to lie down on a special table and a gamma camera, that can detect radiation, will visualize the radioactive substance in your bones. The camera is positioned close to your body. It can take 20 - 30 minutes to take the pictures and it is important to lie as still as possible during this time to avoid blurring the images.

You may leave the clinical after first scan if you stay near by .You can contact the centre for the second image as per time mentioned by centre technologist.If you are having three-dimensional pictures taken, then the camera will slowly rotate around your body taking pictures as it moves.

A written report will be to you upon completion of analysis of the test either in the evening or next day. Your physician will then explain the test results to you.


How Should I Prepare for it ?

There are no special requirements prior to coming to your exam. Eating and drinking is allowed, as well as taking any medications your doctor has prescribed. Drinking plenty of liquids is encouraged between the injection and scan.


How Long will the Test Last ?

Approximate 4-5 hours.


How Much Radiation is Involved ?

The injection of Technetium - 99m results in a small amount of radiation exposure to your body that is comparable to naturally occurring sources (food, air, water, the ground and materials).


Will the Patient Experience Anything from the Radiation ?

The radiation you receive is not felt, seen, smelled or tasted, nor does it make you or your clothing radioactive.


How Long will the Technetium-99m Stay in the Body ?

The Technetium-99m is eliminated from the body within 24 hours days without leaving any trace or effect.


What are the Risk Factors ?

No obvious risk factors.


Will I be able to Travel after the Test ?

You will be able to drive after the test.


Are there any Adverse Reactions ?

Extremely rarely, a person will have an allergic reaction to the radioisotope, which may include severe anaphylaxis.


Are there any Contraindications)?

If you are pregnant or there is a possibility of pregnancy, or if you are breastfeeding, this test may be inappropriate for you at this time.

Three Phase Bone Scan FAQ

What is a Three Phase Bone Scan ?

A three phase bone scan is used to diagnose a fracture when it cannot be seen on an X-ray. It is also used to diagnose bone infection, bone pain, osteomyelitis, as well as other bone diseases.

How should I prepare for this exam ?

There are no special requirements prior to coming to your exam. Eating and drinking is allowed, as well as taking any medications your doctor has prescribed. Drinking plenty of liquids is encouraged between the injection and scan.

How long does the test take ?

The test is broken up into 2 visits with about 4 hours in between each. The first visit, usually about 20 minutes long, involves an injection of a radioactive isotope into a vein. There are no side effects to this injection. As soon as the injection is given, images are immediately taken by the technologist. After these images, you are able to leave the department until your next scheduled time.

On the second visit you will have another series of pictures taken. This usually takes 30 - 60 minutes. All of the images taken are shown to a Nuclear Medicine Physician before you leave to determine whether or not additional images need to be obtained.

How soon will the scan results be available ?

A written report will be given sent to you physician upon completion of analysis of the test either in the evening or next day. Your physician will then explain the test results to you. If you are pregnant or there is a possibility of pregnancy, or if you are breastfeeding, this test may be inappropriate for you at this time.

Genitourinary System FAQ

What is Genitourinary System ?

In anatomy, the genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system.These are grouped together because of their proximity to each other, their common embryological origin and the use of common pathways, like the male urethra. Also, because of their proximity, the systems are sometimes imaged together.

The term "apparatus urogenitalis" is used in Nomina Anatomica (under Splanchnologia), but not in Terminologia Anatomica.

KIDNEY Renal scan FAQ


What is Renal scan ?

A renal scan is a nuclear medicine exam in which a small amount of radioactive material (radioisotope) is used to measure the function of the kidneys.


How the Test is Performed ?

Radioisotope is injected into your vein and kidneys are scanned. Several images are taken, each lasting 1 or 2 seconds. The total scan time takes about 30 minutes to 1 hour.

A computer reviews the images and provides detailed information about how your kidney works. For example, it can tell your doctor how much blood the kidney filters over time.

You should be able to go home after the scan. You may be asked to drink plenty of fluids and urinate frequently to help remove the radioactive material from the body.


How to Prepare for the Test ?

You may be asked to drink additional fluids before the scan.


How the Test Will Feel ?

Some people feel discomfort when the needle is placed into the vein. However, you will not feel the radioactive material. The scanning table may be hard and cold. You will need to lie still during the scan.


Why the Test is Performed ?

A renal scan tells your doctor how your kidneys work. It also shows their size, position, and shape. It is may be done if :


What Abnormal Results Mean ?

Abnormal results are a sign of reduced kidney function. This may be due to :


Risks :

There is a slight amount of radiation from the radioisotope. Most of this radiation exposure occurs to the kidneys and bladder. Almost all radiation is gone from the body in 24 hours. Caution is advised if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Extremely rarely, a person will have an allergic reaction to the radioisotope, which may include severe anaphylaxis.

Renal Cortical Scan FAQ


What is Renal Cortical Scan ?

A renal cortical scan is a test that can help the doctor find out if your child’s kidneys are infected or injured. Special pictures are taken after a medicine is injected into a vein. The pictures show the medicine in the kidneys.

After the test, a measurement of the function of each kidney is done on the computer -- the measurement compares the amount of kidney function in the right and left kidneys.


Before the Test ?

Before coming to the hospital, read the explanation that follows and explain to your child what will happen during the test. For young children, use simple words and explain only shortly before the test.

Children 4 years and under may require sedation for their procedure. No eating and drinking restrictions arenecessary to complete the exam. The day of the exam a parent or guardian needs to be present to sign informed consent for sedation.

If your child is an infant, it is helpful to bring along a bottle of formula or juice for after the test. It is also recommended that you bring a pacifier, blanket or special toy to help calm your child.

For older children, it is helpful to bring a book or toy to play with while waiting and a favorite video to watch or music to listen to during the test. It is helpful to have another caregiver stay with your child's siblings during the pictures.


During the Test ?

A technologist will place a small needle into a vein in your child's hand or foot this is called an IV. The needle stick hurts for just a moment. When the needle is in, the medicine is injected through it into the vein and the needle is removed. After this, there is a 120-minute wait before the test is continued. You may go for a walk during this wait.

After the 120-minute wait, the child will lie on a soft table while a special camera is used to take pictures from above and below the child. If sedation medicine is necessary so that your child can hold still for the pictures, a nurse or doctor will explain it to you. It will take approximately 15 to 20 minutes to take all of the pictures. During this time the camera will not touch or hurt your child. You are encouraged to stay with your child during the test. Children are often more cooperative and less apprehensive when a loved one is present.

It is possible that during the procedure your child may experience some discomfort. Please tell the doctor, nurse or technologist if pain occurs.


After the Test ?

Your child will remove the medicine from the body when he / she urinates. Your child should drink plenty of fluids and urinate often to help clear the medicine from his / her body. It should be completely out of your child's body within 24 hours. As always, you and your child should wash your hands after the child urinates or when handling urine-soaked diapers or sheets.

After the test, your child may return to regular daily activities and meals. If your child had sedation medicine, a nurse will give you additional instructions concerning activities and meals.

Direct Radionucclide Cystogram (DRCG) FAQ


What is Radionucclide Cystogram (DRCG) ?

Direct radionuclide cystogram (DRCG) in the evaluation of patients with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and/or associated obstructive or neurogenic pathology of the lower urinary tract.

Endocrine System FAQ


What is Endocrine System ?

The endocrine system is a network of glands which regulates and controls the release and levels of hormones in the body. Hormones are chemical messengers that are essential for the body to carry out functions such as metabolism, growth and development, sleep and mood. Only a tiny amount of hormone may be needed to trigger the intended action. The endocrine system is complex and the interactions within this system which regulate hormonal release are dependent on a variety of biological and physiological factors. Scientific knowledge of this system is still growing.

Imbalances and malfunctions of the endocrine system can result in well-known diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, infertility and certain types of cancer. Also, disruption of the endocrine system can cause birth defects and learning disabilities.

Human Gastrointestinal Tract FAQ


What is Human gastrointestinal tract ?

The human gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) is an organ system responsible for consuming and digesting foodstuffs, absorbing nutrients, and expelling waste.

The tract is commonly defined as the stomach and intestine, and is divided into the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts However, by the broadest definition, the GI tract includes all structures between the mouth and the anus. On the other hand, the digestive system is a broader term that includes other structures, including the digestive organs and their accessories. The tract may also be divided into foregut, midgut, and hindgut, reflecting the embryological origin of each segment.

The whole digestive tract is about nine meters long. The GI tract releases hormones to help regulate the digestive process. These hormones, including gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin, and ghrelin, are mediated through either intracrine or autocrine mechanisms, indicating that the cells releasing these hormones are conserved structures throughout evolution.

HIDA Scan FAQ


What is HIDA scan ?

HIDA scan is an imaging procedure that helps your doctor track the production and flow of bile from your liver to your small intestine. Bile is a fluid produced by your liver that helps your digestive system break down fats in the foods you eat. A HIDA scan, which stands for hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan, creates pictures of your liver, gallbladder, biliary tract and small intestine. A HIDA scan can also be called cholescintigraphy, hepatobiliary scintigraphy or hepatobiliary scan. A HIDA scan is a type of imaging study called a nuclear medicine scan. This means the HIDA scan uses a radioactive chemical or tracer that helps highlight certain organs on the scan.

Your doctor may order a HIDA scan to track the flow of bile from your liver to your small intestine, and also to evaluate your gallbladder. This may help in the diagnosis of several diseases and conditions, such as :

  • Bile duct obstruction
  • Bile leakage
  • Congenital abnormalities in the bile ducts
  • Gallbladder inflammation (cholecystitis)
  • Gallstones

Your doctor may use a HIDA scan as part of a test to measure the rate at which bile is released from your gallbladder (gallbladder ejection fraction).


Risks :

A HIDA scan carries few risks. Risks may include:

  • Allergic reaction to medications used to enhance the scan
  • Bruising at the injection site
  • Rash


Risks of radiation :

The amount of radioactive tracer injected into your arm during a HIDA scan is very small. The radioactive tracer gives off radiation for several hours and then becomes inactive. The gamma camera that takes pictures of your liver, gallbladder, bile duct and small intestine during a HIDA scan doesn’t give off any radiation. If you’re concerned about the amount of radiation you’ll be exposed to during a HIDA scan, talk with your doctor.


How you Prepare ?

To prepare for your HIDA scan, your doctor may ask you to :

  • Fast for a few hours. Recommendations vary, but expect to fast for two or more hours before your HIDA scan. You may be allowed to drink clear liquids.
  • Delay taking some medications. Certain medications may interfere with your HIDA scan, so your doctor may ask that you delay taking your medications on the day of your scan. Tell your doctor about any medications you’re taking.
  • Take medications that enhance the scan. Certain medications may make it easier for your doctor to interpret the results of your HIDA scan. Whether you need to take this type of medication depends on the reason for your scan. In some cases you may start taking this medication a few days before your scan. In other cases you may receive an infusion of a medication in addition to the radioactive tracer thats injected immediately before or during your HIDA scan.


What can you Expect During your HIDA scan ?

You’ll be asked to change into a gown before your HIDA scan begins. Your health care team will position you on a table, usually on your back. A medication is then injected into a vein in your arm. The medication contains a radioactive tracer that travels through your bloodstream to your liver, where it’s taken up by the bile-producing cells. The radioactive tracer travels with the bile from your liver, into your gallbladder and through your bile ducts to your small intestine. You may feel some pressure while the radioactive tracer is injected into your vein.

As you lie on the table, a special gamma camera passes back and forth over your abdomen taking pictures of the tracer as it moves through your body. Each picture takes about a minute. The gamma camera takes pictures continuously for about an hour. Youll need to keep still during the HIDA scan. This can become uncomfortable, but you may find that you can lessen the discomfort by taking deep breaths and thinking about other things. Tell your health care team if youre uncomfortable. The doctor watches the scans progress on a monitor as the radioactive tracer moves through your body.

The HIDA scan stops when the doctor sees the radioactive tracer entering your small intestine. This typically takes an hour. If your doctor doesnt see the radioactive tracer in your small intestine, you may receive a medication and undergo more scans later in the day.


After your HIDA scan ?

In most cases you can go about your day after your HIDA scan. You’ll likely still have some of the radioactive tracer in your body. The substance will leave your body through your urine over the next day or two. For this reason your doctor may ask that you :

  • Flush the toilet twice after urinating.
  • Wash your hands thoroughly after you urinate.
  • Drink water throughout the day to help flush the radioactive tracer from your body.

Results :

The doctor who interprets the HIDA scan images (radiologist) may discuss the results of your scan right away. In other cases the radiologist will send the results to your doctor, who will discuss them with you. HIDA scan images, as seen on a monitor, appear as regions of dark color and lighter or white areas. The more dark color on the image, the greater amount of radioactive tracer was absorbed in that area. Dark color throughout the series of HIDA scan images indicates that the radioactive tracer was able to move freely through your liver, bile ducts, gallbladder and small intestine. If the radioactive tracer wasn’t seen in certain HIDA scan images, there may be a blockage or other problem.

Examples of results of a HIDA scan might include :

  • Normal. A normal result means that the radioactive tracer moved freely along with the bile from your liver to your small intestine. No problems were detected.
  • Slow movement of radioactive tracer. If the radioactive tracer moves through your bile ducts very slowly, that may indicate a blockage or obstruction.
  • No radioactive tracer seen in the gallbladder. If the radioactive tracer isnt seen in your gallbladder, that may indicate inflammation (cholecystitis).
  • Radioactive tracer detected in other areas. If the radioactive tracer is found outside of your biliary system, this may indicate a leak in a bile duct.

Your doctor will discuss your specific results with you.

Liver and Spleen Scan FAQ


What is Liver and Spleen Scan ?

A liver and spleen scan is a nuclear scan that is done to look at these organs for disease.

During a liver and spleen scan, a radioactive tracer substance is put into a vein (IV) in the arm. It moves through the blood to the liver and spleen Areas of the liver and spleen where the tracer collects in large amounts show up as bright spots in the pictures. Areas where the tracer collects in low amounts or does not show up are seen as dark spots. The pattern in which the tracer spreads through the liver and spleen can help find cysts, abscesses, certain types of tumors, or problems with liver function. Scans of the liver and the spleen are done at the same time.


Why It Is Done ?

A liver and spleen scan is done to :

  • Check for diseases of the spleen or liver If liver disease has been diagnosed, a liver scan can help show how well the liver is working.
  • Look for cancer in the liver.
  • See if cancer has spread (metastasized) to the liver or spleen.
  • Show the condition of the liver and spleen after a belly injury.


How To Prepare ?

Before your liver and spleen scan, tell your doctor if you :

  • Are or might be pregnant.
  • You are breast-feeding. The radioactive tracer used in this test can get into your breast milk. Do not breast-feed your baby for 2 days after this test. During this time, you can give your baby breast milk you stored before the test, or you can give formula. Discard the breast milk you pump for 2 days after the test.
  • Have had an X-ray test using barium contrast material (such as a barium enema) or have taken a medicine (such as Pepto - Bismol) that has bismuth in the last 4 days. Barium and bismuth can block a clear picture.
  • You will empty your bladder right before the scan.


How It is Done ?

A liver and spleen scan is often done by a nuclear medicine technologist. The scan pictures are read by a radiologist or nuclear medicine specialist.

You will need to take off any jewelry. You may need to take off all or most of your clothes. You will be given a gown to wear during the test.


During the test :

The technologist cleans the site on your arm where the radioactive tracer will be injected. A small amount of the radioactive tracer is then injected.

Parathyroid Scan FAQ


What is it ?

The Nuclear Medicine Parathyroid Scan is an exam to determine the function and health of the parathyroid gland which regulates calcium uptake in the body.

Nuclear Medicine scans are performed using very small amounts of radioactive material. The computer processes the information and displays the information in the form of a picture.

Nuclear Medicine exams differ from other x-ray procedures because the energy (x-rays and photons) come from different sources. X-ray energy is created by the x-ray tube and pass through the body. Another major difference is that Nuclear Medicine exams best demonstrate body physiology (system function), whereas x-rays show anatomical detail.


What will happen to me ?

The Nuclear Medicine Technologist will give you a special radionuclide injection in the vein of your arm. The technologist will assist you to lay on a flat table and position the Gamma Camera over your neck and chest area to take the first picture. The Gamma Camera will be very close to you to obtain the best picture. After the first picture you will need to wait for one (1) hour before the second picture can be taken. This delay allows more time for the radionuclide to collect in the parathyroid gland and background to clear.


How long will this test take ?

It take about 15 minutes to prepare you for the exam after you arrive in the Nuclear Medicine Department. Once the first scan is started it will take 30 minutes to take the necessary pictures. Then you will need to wait for one hour before the second pictures can be taken. Once the second scan is started it will take another 30 minutes to complete. Additional pictures may be necessary as needed.


What will I feel, will it hurt ?

You will not feel any effects from the radionuclide injection. You will need to lay flat on a table for the scan with your head extended backwards and a sponge under your shoulders. You will need to lay very still while the scan is being performed so that the best picture can be made. You will not feel any effects from the Gamma Camera. It does not create radiation, it only detects the energy coming from the collection of radioactivity in your parathyroid gland. The Gamma Camera is a large machine that collects the emitted photons from the radioactivity but produces very little sound. The Gamma Camera must be very close to you and will be moved over your body to obtain the pictures.

The radiation will totally disappear from your body in about 24 hours. The radiation exposure you receive from this exam is no more than from a routine x-ray procedure.


What will the test show ?

The radionuclide collects in your parathyroid gland in different patterns depending on the function of the gland. If one area of the parathyroid receives more of the radionuclide than other areas this can be seen on the scan. Very slight changes in the parathyroid gland can be detected by the scan.


How do I get ready ?

There is no preparation for this exam. Just before your exam, you should remove any necklaces from around your neck since these will interfere with the pictures.

Skeletal System FAQ


What is it ?

There are 206 bones in a typical human body, providing an important range of functions. They :

  • Provide a framework that supports the body
  • Protect the organs within the body cavities against mechanical injury, e.g. the rib cage protects the heart and lungs, the skull protects the brain
  • Contain and protect the red bone marrow, where red blood cells (or erythrocytes), white blood cells (or leukocytes) and lymph cells are formed
  • Provide a storage site for inorganic salts such as calcium and phosphate
  • And by providing the site of attachment of muscles, they create a system of levers which can be used to create motion in the body

Iodine Treatment FAQ


What is a 131 Iodine Treatment ?

Radioactive iodine is a common well-accepted form for treating hyperthyroidism, and thyroid carcinoma. The thyroid gland accumulates the radioactive iodine. The radiation given off by this form of iodine decreases the function of the thyroid cells and inhibits their ability to grow. This is the desired medical effect and the reason you will be given this treatment.


How do I prepare for this treatment ?

Women of childbearing age (13-50) will be requested to have a pregnancy test completed prior to treatment. Your physician will order this exam.


What will happen during this exam ?

The physician treating you will explain the procedure and expected outcome of this therapy with you. You will be asked to sign a consent form. The treatment is given in the form of capsule or liquid for you to swallow.


How long will the procedure take ?

For Hyperthyroidism, after oral administration of radioiodine, you are required to wait for 30 minutes after which you can leave. For Thyroid Carcinomas, after oral administration of high dose of radioiodine, you will be admitted in isolation ward. Depending upon dose administration, you may need to be admitted for 1-5 days. This admission is necessary. This is safeguard to help minimize radiation exposure to your family and general public. By adhering to the following guidelines, you can avoid unnecessary exposure to individuals around you. The radioiodine will only be in your body in insignificant amounts for the first 48 hours.


Minimal exposure to others can be accomplished by following these guidelines :
  • It is recommended that female patients protect against pregnancy for six (6) months after treatment.
  • Maintain a reasonable distance from others at home or at work (approximately 1 meter) for the first 3-7 days, except for short periods. This is especially important if you are in regular contact with children or pregnant women.
  • Children Should Kept away during this period.
  • Do not allow small children to sleep in the same bed with you.
  • Wash or dispose of any utensils or material that comes in contact with your mouth or body fluids.
  • Suspend breastfeeding.
  • Wash hands after using the rest room and double flush the toilet.
  • Nasal excretions may contain radioactivity. Do not use handkerchiefs. Dispose of tissue in the toilet and flush.
  • Avoid high security areas where radiation monitors may be present.


What will happen after the exam ?

The treating physician will prepare a report that will be forwarded to your physician.


Iodine Whole Body Scan


What is a 131 Iodine Whole Body Scan ?

The 131 iodine diagnostic scan is performed following the diagnosis and surgical treatment of papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma. Images are taken of the whole body - front and back.


How do I prepare for the exam ?

Women of childbearing age (13-50) will be requested to have a pregnancy test done before receiving radioactive iodine. Patients must be off all thyroid medication for an adequate period of time and your physician will discuss this with you.


What will happen during this exam ?
  • Day one :- you will receive a diagnostic capsule or Liquid of radioactive iodine.
  • Day two or three :- you will return for the whole body scan. Pictures will be taken from head to toe. You will lie comfortable on the scanning table.


How long will the procedure take ?
  • Day one :- 30 minutes.
  • Day two :- If require 30-60 hours.


What will happen after the exam ?

The Nuclear Medicine Physician will interpret the images and Prepare a report.

Respiratory System FAQ


What is a respiratory system ?

In human beings, the respiratory system comprises the airways, lungs and respiratory muscles that help in the movement of air into and out of the body.


What makes up the respiratory system ?

The respiratory system consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. Proper functioning of all these organs allows normal breathing.